$ readlink -f $(which python) | xargs -I % sh -c 'echo -n "%: "; % -V'
csv.DictReader(csvfile, fieldnames=None, restkey=None, restval=None, dialect=’excel’, *args,**kwds)
Create an object which operates like a regular reader but maps the information read into a dict whose keys are given by the optional fieldnames parameter. The fieldnames parameter is a sequence whose elements are associated with the fields of the input data in order. These elements become the keys of the resulting dictionary. If the fieldnames parameter is omitted, the values in the first row of the csvfile will be used as the fieldnames. If the row read has more fields than the fieldnames sequence, the remaining data is added as a sequence keyed by the value of restkey. If the row read has fewer fields than the fieldnames sequence, the remaining keys take the value of the optional restval parameter. Any other optional or keyword arguments are passed to the underlyingreader instance.
A short usage example:
>>> import csv >>> with open('names.csv') as csvfile: ... reader = csv.DictReader(csvfile) ... for row in reader: ... print(row['first_name'], row['last_name']) ...
So if you have a csv with First Name & Last name as the headers in the first row , the command row[‘first_name’] would give the field under that keyword(First Name) row by row. This was very very useful for my implementation.
Given below is an example of opening a file, manipulating the file, then closing it:
with open('output.txt', 'w') as f: f.write('Hi there!')
with statement will automatically close the file after the nested block of code. The advantage of using a
with statement is that it is guaranteed to close the file no matter how the nested block exits. If an exception occurs before the end of the block, it will close the file before the exception is caught by an outer exception handler. If the nested block were to contain a
return statement, or a
break statement, the
with statement would automatically close the file in those cases, too.
Python provides a getopt module that helps you parse command-line options and arguments.
$ python test.py arg1 arg2 arg3
The Python sys module provides access to any command-line arguments via the sys.argv. This serves two purpose:
- sys.argv is the list of command-line arguments.
- len(sys.argv) is the number of command-line arguments.
Here sys.argv is the program ie. script name.
Consider the following script test.py:
#!/usr/bin/python import sys print 'Number of arguments:', len(sys.argv), 'arguments.' print 'Argument List:', str(sys.argv)
Now run above script as follows:
$ python test.py arg1 arg2 arg3
This will produce following result:
Number of arguments: 4 arguments. Argument List: ['test.py', 'arg1', 'arg2', 'arg3']
NOTE: As mentioned above, first argument is always script name and it is also being counted in number of arguments.
Additional notes from VJ : –
If there are arguments that are provided along with the python file, then within the python file this argument can be accessed like this : –
sys.argv -> for 2nd argument sys.argv -> for 3rd argument Note: sys.argv is the python script name as mentioned above
message = “””<html>